Seven reasons why we are supporters of ammonia:
- Sustainable energy can be stored in the form of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier.
- Ammonia has a relative high energy density in general but as a carbon free component one of the highest.
- Ammonia contains in fact more hydrogen per molecule than the product hydrogen and that has advantages in storage and logistics (108 kg H2/m3 NH3warm or 121 kg H2/m3 NH3cold).
- Ammonia is liquid at -33ºC at atmospheric pressure, vs -253ºC for liquid hydrogen.
- Ammonia can be easily stored and transported with excellent track record by pipeline, truck, rail or ship.
- Ammonia has a slower flame speed and a higher auto-ignition temperature than hydrogen, making it less prone to explosions
- Ammonia is toxic in case of releases, but not lower than 50ppm. It can be smelled from a concentration as low as 5ppm.
How easy can you transport ammonia?
- Ammonia is liquid at -33ºC or 8bar
- 200 ammonia terminals and 170 ships handle ammonia today
- Excellent transportation track record by pipeline, truck, rail or ship
How safe is ammonia?
Ammonia is quite safe:
- Low laminar flame speed of 7cm/s (vs 3m/s for hydrogen)
- Narrow flammability range between 15-28%
- Octane ratio higher than gasoline or LPG
- Toxic at 50ppm, but smellable at 5ppm